Welding can be defined as the art or process of joining metals by amalgamating the ends of the two pieces of metals. Primarily used for metals, welding is also done to join thermoplastics. It is indeed the basis of any fabrication the world over.  This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the workpieces.

In welding, three main ingredients are required to join metals together.

1. An electrical power source to produce an arc. This is required to melt the metal.

2. Some form of shielding to protect the weld from the air. This is because the gaseous inclusion in the weld melt makes the welded area brittle and therefore weak.

3. Filler material to fill the weld joint.


There are various processes in which welding takes place. Broadly, they are as under.

1.       Arc welding

a.         Carbon Arc Welding

b.         Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

c.         Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

d.         Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG, GMAW)

e.         Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG, GTAW)

f.          Electroslag Welding (ESW)

g.         Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)

h.         Atomic Hydrogen Welding

i.          Electrogas Welding

j.          Stud Arc Welding

k.         Flux-Core FCAW (Flux-core Arc Welding)

2.       Resistance Welding (RW)

a.         Spot Welding (RSW)

b.         Flash Welding (FW)

c.         Resistance Butt Welding (UW)

d.         Seam Welding (RSEW)

3.       Gas Welding (GW)

a.         Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)

b.         Oxyhydrogen Welding (OHW)

c.         Pressure Gas Welding (PGW)

4.       SolidState Welding (SSW)

a.         Forge Welding (FOW)

b.         Cold Welding (CW)

c.         Friction Welding (FRW)

d.         Explosive Welding (EXW)

e.         Diffusion Welding (DFW)

f.          Ultrasonic Welding (USW) 

5.       Thermit Welding (TW) 

6.       Electron Beam Welding (EBW)

7.       Laser Welding (LW)

8.       Plastic Welding

a.         Ultrasonic Welding

b.         Friction Welding

c.         Vibration Welding

d.         Hot Plate Welding

e.         Hot Gas Welding

f.          Resistive and Implant Welding

For details about each welding type, click on them.

* We do support original work. Details here have been taken and amalgamated from various sources to present a holistic view.  We hereby fully acknowledge the knowledge base of the various sources that we have referred. For more information on this, click here.